## Mathematics: Standards

California Standards for Mathematics adopted in 2010 and modified in 2013 include both content and process standards. Content standards for K-8 are organized according to domains and higher mathematics standards by conceptual categories that make up model courses. The K-12 Standards for Mathematical Practice (MP) address “habits of mind” that students should develop to foster mathematical understanding. These are integral to supporting students’ mathematical understanding. Both types of standards must be implemented to have full impact of CCSSM

Three major principles of the Standards:
The two major evidence-based principles on which the standards are based are focus and coherence.

### 1. Focus

Strongly emphasize where the Standards focus:
• Allow time for rich classroom discussion and interaction that support the Mathematical Practice (MP) standards.
• Focus deeply on emphasized standards so that students gain conceptual understanding, a high degree of procedural skill and fluency, and the ability to apply the math to solve problems inside and outside the math classroom.

### 2. Coherence

• CCSSM are built on the progression of topics across a number of grade levels, informed both by research on children’s cognitive development and by the logical structure of mathematics

• Progressions Documents for CCSSM >

• Connections between the standards at a single grade can improve instructional focus by linking supporting or additional topics to the major work of a particular grade.

### 3. Rigor

Pursue with equal intensity:
• Conceptual understanding
Ability to access concepts from multiple perspective, to apply math in new situations and
speak and write about one’s understanding. Without a flexible base, students may be less likely to consider analogous problems, represent problems coherently, justify conclusions, apply the mathematics to practical situations, use technology mindfully, explain the math accurately to other students, or deviate from a known procedure to find a shortcut.
• Procedural skill and fluency
“Fluently” in the standards is used to mean “reasonably fast and accurate” and the ability to use certain facts and procedures with enough facility that using them does not slow down or derail the problem solver as he or she works on more complex problems.
• Applications
The phrase “real-world problems” and the star symbol indicate opportunities to apply and model the mathematics. These provide activities related to careers and the work-world

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